The material risks generally associated with DoubleLine’s strategies and managed instruments are described below. Although the risks described below will typically apply to most accounts and most Clients in most circumstances, Clients should be aware that not all of these risks listed will pertain to every account because certain risks may only apply to certain strategies. Certain Clients may experience risks not disclosed in this Brochure because of investment approaches or strategies requested via investment guidelines that the Client approved.
Please contact your DoubleLine representative for more information regarding the risks related to your particular account or if you have questions about any of these risks.
Affiliated Fund Risk: DoubleLine may be subject to potential conflicts of interest in determining whether to invest Client assets in a fund managed by DoubleLine or in a fund managed by an unaffiliated manager and may have an economic or other incentive to select an affiliated fund over another fund.
Asset Allocation Risk: An account’s investment performance depends, at least in part, on how its assets are allocated and reallocated among asset classes. Such allocation could focus on asset classes or investments that perform poorly or underperform other asset classes or available investments.
Asset-Backed Securities Risk: If the value of the collateral underlying a security in which an account invests, such as non-payment of loans, becomes impaired, that could result in a reduction in the value of the security and therefore the performance of the account.
Capital Control Risk: Capital controls are residency-based measures such as transaction taxes, other limits, or outright prohibitions that a nation’s government can use to regulate flows from capital markets into and out of the country’s capital account. These measures may be economy-wide, sector-specific (usually the financial sector), or industry specific (for example, “strategic” industries). They may apply to all flows, or may differentiate by type or duration of the flow (debt, equity, direct investment; short-term vs. medium- and long-term).
Types of capital control include exchange controls that prevent or limit the buying and selling of a national currency at the market rate, caps on the allowed volume for the international sale or purchase of various financial assets, transaction taxes, minimum stay requirements, requirements for mandatory approval, or even limits on the amount of money a private citizen is allowed to remove from the country.
Cash Position Risk: An account may hold any portion of its assets in cash, cash equivalents, or other short-term investments at any time or for an extended time. DoubleLine will determine the amount of an account’s assets to be held in cash or cash equivalents at its sole discretion, based on such factors as it may consider appropriate under the circumstances. To the extent that an account holds assets in cash or is otherwise uninvested, an account’s ability to meet its objective may be limited.
Collateralized Debt Obligations (“CDO”) Risk: An account may invest in CDOs, which are a type of asset-backed security, and include Collateralized Bond Obligations (“CBOs”), Collateralized Loan Obligations (“CLOs”), and other similarly structured securities. A CBO is a trust which may be backed by a diversified pool of high risk, below investment grade fixed income securities. A CLO is a trust typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. CDOs may charge management fees and administrative expenses. The cash flows from the CDO trust are generally split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. Senior tranches are paid from the cash flows from the underlying assets before the junior tranches and equity or “first loss” tranches. Losses are first borne by the equity tranches, next by the junior tranches, and finally by the senior tranches. Senior tranches pay the lowest interest rates but are generally safer investments than more junior tranches because, should there be any default, senior tranches are typically paid first. The most junior tranches, such as equity tranches, typically are due to be paid the highest interest rates but suffer the highest risk should the holder of an underlying loan default. If some loans default and the cash collected by the CDO is insufficient to pay all of its investors, those in the lowest, most junior tranches suffer losses first. Since it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CDO trust typically has higher ratings and lower potential yields than the underlying securities, and can be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity tranche, more senior CDO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults and aversion to CDO securities as a class. The risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the quality and type of the collateral and the tranche of the CDO in which an account invests. Normally, CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs are privately offered and sold, and thus are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CDOs may be characterized by DoubleLine as illiquid securities; however, an active dealer market, or other relevant measures of liquidity, may exist for CDOs allowing a CDO potentially to be deemed liquid by DoubleLine under its liquidity compliance policies. In addition to the risks associated with debt instruments (e.g., interest rate risk and credit risk), CDOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to: (i) the possibility that distributions from collateral will not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the possibility that a Client’s account may invest in CDOs that are subordinate to other classes (potentially including classes held by other DoubleLine accounts); and (iv) the complex structure of the security may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results.
Commodities Risk: An account’s value could be affected by changes in the values of one or more commodities to which the account has indirect or direct exposure. Commodities may be extremely volatile, difficult to value and illiquid. Commodities may also include costs associated with delivery, storage, and maintenance.
Concentration Risk: Concentrating investments potentially increases the risk of loss because the securities of many or all of the companies may decline in value due to developments adversely affecting the industries in which they operate. This effect is more pronounced in accounts that are sized below DoubleLine’s recommended account size for each strategy, although this risk can exist in accounts above DoubleLine’s recommended account size for any given strategy.
Confidential Information Access Risk: The risk that the intentional or unintentional receipt of material, non-public information (“Confidential Information”) by DoubleLine could limit its ability to sell certain investments held by a Client or pursue certain investment opportunities on behalf of a Client, potentially for a substantial period of time. Also, certain issuers of floating rate loans or other investments may not have any traded securities (“Private Issuers”) and may offer private information pursuant to confidentiality agreements or similar arrangements. DoubleLine may access such private information, while recognizing that the receipt of that information could potentially limit its ability to trade in certain securities on behalf of the Client if the Private Issuer later issues publicly traded securities. In addition, in circumstances when DoubleLine declines to receive Confidential Information from issuers of floating rate loans or other investments, a Client may be disadvantaged in comparison to other investors, including with respect to evaluating the issuer and the price a Client would pay or receive when it buys or sells those investments. In managing a Client’s account, DoubleLine may, in its discretion, seek to avoid the receipt of Confidential Information about the issuers of floating rate loans or other investments being considered for acquisition by the Client or held in the Client’s portfolio if the receipt of the Confidential Information would restrict one or more Clients, including, potentially, the Client, from trading in securities they hold or in which they may invest. Avoidance of Confidential Information may also limit DoubleLine’s ability to pursue certain investment opportunities on behalf of a Client.
Convertible Securities Risk: Convertible securities generally offer lower interest or dividend yields than non-convertible debt securities of similar quality. The market values of convertible securities tend to decline as interest rates increase and, conversely, to increase as interest rates decline. However, a convertible security’s market value tends to reflect the market price of the common stock of the issuing company when that stock price approaches or is greater than the convertible security’s “conversion price”. The conversion price is defined as the predetermined price at which the convertible security could be exchanged for the associated stock. As the market price of the underlying common stock declines, the price of the convertible security tends to be influenced more by the yield of the convertible security. Thus, it may not decline in price to the same extent as the underlying common stock. In the event of a liquidation of the issuing company, holders of convertible securities would be paid before the company’s common stockholders but after holders of any senior debt obligations of the company. Consequently, the issuer’s convertible securities generally entail less risk than its common stock but more risk than its debt obligations.
Counterparty Risk: Investments and investment transactions are subject to various counterparty risks. The counterparties to transactions in over-the-counter or “inter-dealer” markets are typically subject to lesser credit evaluation and regulatory oversight compared to members of “exchange-based” markets. This may increase the risk that a counterparty will not settle a transaction because of a credit or liquidity problem, thus causing a Client’s account to suffer losses. In addition, in the case of a default, an investment could become subject to adverse market movements while replacement transactions are executed. Such counterparty risk is accentuated for investments with longer maturities or settlement dates where events may intervene to prevent settlement or where transactions are concentrated with a single or small group of counterparties. Furthermore, upon the bankruptcy, insolvency or liquidation of any counterparty, the investor may be deemed to be a general, unsecured creditor of such counterparty and could suffer a total loss with respect to any positions and/or transactions with such counterparty. Under current market conditions, counterparty risk is substantially increased and more difficult to predict. In addition to heightened risk of bankruptcy, in this environment there is a greater risk that counterparties may have their assets frozen or seized as a result of government intervention or regulation. DoubleLine is not restricted from dealing with any particular counterparty or from concentrating any or all of its transactions with one counterparty.
Credit Default Swaps Risk: Credit default swaps may involve greater risks than investing in the reference obligation directly. In addition to general market risks, credit default swaps are subject to liquidity risk, counterparty risk and credit risk. A buyer will lose its investment and recover nothing should no event of default occur. If an event of default were to occur, the value of the reference obligation received by the seller (if any), coupled with the periodic payments previously received, may be less than the full notional value it pays to the buyer, resulting in a loss of value to the seller. When a Client acts as a seller of a credit default swap, it is exposed to many of the same risks of leverage described herein since if an event of default occurs the seller must pay the buyer the full notional value of the reference obligation.
The market for credit default swaps has become more volatile in recent years as the creditworthiness of certain counterparties has been questioned and/or downgraded. If a counterparty’s credit becomes significantly impaired, multiple requests for collateral posting in a short period of time could increase the risk that a Client may not receive adequate collateral. A Client may exit its obligations under a credit default swap only by terminating the contract and paying applicable breakage fees, or by entering into an offsetting credit default swap position, which may cause a Client to incur more losses.
Credit Risk: An issuer may default in the payment of principal and/or interest on a security. Debt securities are subject to varying degrees of credit risk, which are often, but not always, reflected in credit ratings.
Cyber Security Risk: With the increased use of technologies such as the Internet and the dependence on computer systems to perform necessary business functions, investment advisers such as DoubleLine and its service providers may be prone to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber -attacks. In general, cyber-attacks result from deliberate attacks but unintentional events may have effects similar to those caused by cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks include, among other behaviors, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, denial of service attacks on websites, the unauthorized release of confidential information and causing operational disruption. Successful cyber-attacks against, or security breakdowns of DoubleLine or its third party service providers, Client’s custodians and/or its third party service providers may adversely impact DoubleLine and its Clients. While DoubleLine or its service providers may have established business continuity plans and systems designed to guard against such cyber-attacks or adverse effects of such attacks, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified, in large part because different unknown threats may emerge in the future.
Debt Securities Risk: In addition to certain of the other risks described herein, such as credit risk, extension risk or interest rate risk, debt securities generally also are subject to the following risks:
Redemption Risk—Debt securities sometimes contain provisions that allow for redemption in the event of tax or security law changes in addition to call features at the option of the issuer. In the event of a redemption, the Fund may not be able to reinvest the proceeds at comparable rates of return.
Liquidity Risk—Certain debt securities may be substantially less liquid than many other securities, such as U.S. Government securities or common shares or other equity securities.
Spread Risk—Wider credit spreads and decreasing market values typically represent a deterioration of the debt security’s credit soundness and a perceived greater likelihood or risk of default by the issuer.
Limited Voting Rights—Debt securities typically do not provide any voting rights, except in cases when interest payments have not been made and the issuer is in default. Even in such cases, such rights may be limited to the terms of the debenture or other agreements.
Defaulted Securities Risk: Defaulted securities risk refers to the uncertainty of repayment of defaulted securities and obligations of distressed issuers. Because the issuer of such securities is in default and is likely to be in distressed financial condition, repayment of defaulted securities and obligations of distressed issuers (including insolvent issuers or issuers in payment or covenant default, in workout or restructuring or in bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings) is subject to significant uncertainties. Insolvency laws and practices in emerging market countries are different than those in the U.S. and the effect of these laws and practices cannot be predicted with certainty. Investments in defaulted securities and obligations of distressed issuers are considered highly speculative.
Derivatives Risk: Derivatives are subject to a number of risks described elsewhere in this Form ADV, such as liquidity risk, issuer risk, credit risk, interest rate risk, leverage risk, counterparty risk, management risk and, if applicable, smaller company risk. Derivatives also involve the risk of mispricing or improper valuation, the risk of unfavorable or ambiguous documentation, and the risk that changes in the value of a derivative may not correlate perfectly with an underlying asset, currency, interest rate or index. If a Client Account invests in a derivative instrument, it could lose more than the principal amount invested. Suitable derivatives transactions may not be available in all circumstances and there can be no assurance that the Fund will engage in these transactions to reduce exposure to other risks when such transaction activity would be beneficial.
The use by an account of derivatives such as options, forwards or futures contracts, or short sales may subject an account to risks associated with short economic exposure. Taking a short economic position through derivatives exposes an account to the risk that it will be obligated to make payments to its counterparty if the underlying asset appreciates in value, resulting in a loss to an account. An account’s loss on a short position theoretically could be unlimited.
Insolvency of a counterparty to a derivative instrument could cause an account to lose all or substantially all of its investment in that derivative instrument, as well as the benefits derived there from.
Risks Related to Derivatives Clearing Brokers and Central Clearing Counterparties:
Recent changes to the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”) requires swaps and futures clearing brokers registered as “futures commission merchants” to segregate all funds received from customers with respect to any orders for the purchase or sale of U.S. domestic futures contracts and cleared swaps from the brokers’ proprietary assets. If the DoubleLine strategy in which you are invested or intend to invest involves the use of futures contracts or cleared swaps, you are encouraged to speak with your DoubleLine representative about the associated risks of the nascent use of central clearing counterparties for such trades.
Emerging Market Country Risk: Account performance could decline due to the greater degree of economic, political, and social instability of emerging market countries as compared to developed countries.
Equity Issuer Risk: Equity securities represent an ownership interest, or the right to acquire an ownership interest, in an issuer. The value of a company’s stock may decline in value in response to factors affecting that company, that company’s industry, or the market generally.
Exchange-Traded Notes Risk: The level of the particular market benchmark or strategy to which an exchange-traded note’s return is linked may fall in value, resulting in a loss to an account holding that exchange-traded note. Exchange-traded notes are subject to credit risk generally to the same extent as debt securities.
Extension Risk: The risk that if interest rates rise, repayments of principal on certain debt securities, including, but not limited to, floating rate loans and mortgage-related securities, may occur at a slower rate than expected and the expected maturity of those securities could lengthen as a result. Securities that are subject to extension risk generally have a greater potential for loss when prevailing interest rates rise, which could cause their values to fall sharply. Interest-only and principal-only securities are especially sensitive to interest rate changes, which can affect not only their prices but can also change the income flows and repayment assumptions about those investments.
Financial Services Risk: Investing in issuers in the financial services sector involve, among others, the following risks: (i) changes in regulatory framework or interest rates that may negatively affect financial service businesses; (ii) exposure of a financial institution to a non diversified or concentrated loan portfolios; (iii) exposure to financial leverage and/or investments or agreements which, under certain circumstances, may lead to losses, for example sub-prime loans; and (iv) the risk that a market shock or other unexpected market, economic, political, regulatory, or other event might lead to a sudden decline in the values of most or all companies in the financial services sector.
Focused Investment Risk: An account that invests a substantial portion of its assets in a particular market, industry, group of industries, country, region, group of countries, asset class or sector generally is subject to greater risk than an account that invests in a more diverse investment portfolio. In addition, the value of such an account is more susceptible to any single economic, market, political or regulatory occurrence affecting, for example, that particular market, industry, region or sector. This is because, for example, issuers in a particular market, industry, region or sector often react similarly to specific economic, market, regulatory, or political developments.
Foreign Currency Risk: Foreign currency risk is the risk that fluctuations in exchange rates may adversely affect the value of the account’s investments. Foreign currency risk includes both the risk that currencies in which the account’s investments are traded and/or in which the account receives income, or currencies in which the account has taken an active investment position, will decline in value relative to other currencies. In the case of hedging positions, currency risk includes the risk that the currency to which the account is seeking exposure will decline in value relative to the foreign currency being hedged. Currency exchange rates fluctuate significantly for many reasons, including changes in supply and demand in the currency exchange markets, actual or perceived changes in interest rates, intervention (or the failure to intervene) by U.S. or foreign governments, central banks, or supranational agencies such as the International Monetary Fund, and currency controls or other political and economic developments in the U.S. or abroad. The account also may take overweighted or underweighted currency positions and/or hedge the currency exposure of the securities in which it has invested. As a result, the account’s currency exposure may differ (in some cases significantly) from the currency exposure of its investments and/or its benchmarks.
Foreign Investing Risk: An account’s investments may be affected by the market conditions, currencies, and the economic and political climates in the foreign countries in which the account invests.
Hedging Strategy Risk: Certain of the investment techniques that various DoubleLine strategies may employ for hedging will expose an account to additional or increased risks. There may be an imperfect correlation between changes in the value of an account’s portfolio holdings and hedging positions entered into by the account, which may prevent the account from achieving the intended hedge or expose the account to risk of loss. In addition, an account’s success in using hedge instruments is subject to DoubleLine’s ability to predict correctly changes in the relationships of such hedge instruments to the account’s portfolio holdings. There can be no assurance that DoubleLine’s judgment in this respect will be accurate. DoubleLine is under no obligation to engage in any hedging strategies, and may, in its discretion, choose not to. Even if DoubleLine desires to hedge some of the Fund’s risks, suitable hedging transactions may not be available or, if available, attractive. A failure to hedge may result in losses to the value of an account’s investments.
High Yield Risk: Debt instruments rated below investment grade or debt instruments that are unrated and determined by DoubleLine to be of comparable quality are predominantly speculative. They are usually issued by companies without long track records of sales and earnings or by companies with questionable credit strength. These instruments, commonly known as ‘junk bonds,’ have a higher degree of default risk and may be less liquid than higher-rated bonds. These instruments may be subject to greater price volatility due to such factors as specific corporate developments, interest rate sensitivity, negative perceptions of high yield investments, general economic downturn, and less secondary market liquidity. This potential lack of liquidity may make it more difficult for DoubleLine to value these instruments accurately. An economic downturn could severely affect the ability of issuers (particularly those that are highly leveraged) to service their debt obligations or to repay their obligations upon maturity. DoubleLine does not consider the term “junk bonds” to include any mortgage-backed securities or any other asset-backed securities, regardless of their credit rating or credit quality.
Inflation/Deflation Risk: Inflation risk is the risk that the value of assets or income from an account’s investments will be worth less in the future as inflation decreases the value of payments at future dates. As inflation increases, the real value of an account’s portfolio could decline. Deflation risk is the risk that prices throughout the economy decline over time. Deflation may have an adverse effect on the creditworthiness of issuers and may make issuer default more likely, which may result in a decline in the value of the Fund’s portfolio.
Inflation-Indexed Bond Risk: Inflation-indexed bonds may change in value in response to actual or anticipated changes in inflation rates, in a manner unanticipated by DoubleLine or investors generally. Inflation-indexed bonds are subject to debt securities risk generally to the same extent as other similar debt securities.
Interest Rate Risk: Debt securities may decline in value because of increases in interest rates. An account with a longer average duration will be more sensitive to changes in interest rates than an account with a shorter average duration.
Inverse Floaters and Related Securities Risk: Investments in inverse floaters, residual interest tender option bonds and similar instruments expose accounts to the same risks as investments in debt securities and derivatives, as well as other risks, including those associated with leverage and increased volatility. An investment in these securities typically will involve greater risk than an investment in a fixed rate security. Distributions on inverse floaters, residual interest tender option bonds and similar instruments will typically bear an inverse relationship to short term interest rates and typically will be reduced or, potentially, eliminated as interest rates rise. Inverse floaters, residual interest tender option bonds and similar instruments will underperform the market for fixed rate securities in a rising interest rate environment. Some inverse floaters may be considered to be leveraged to the extent that their interest rates vary by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in a reference rate of interest (typically a short term interest rate). The leverage inherent in inverse floaters is associated with greater volatility in their market values.
Investment Company and Exchange-Traded Fund Risk: Investments in open-end and closed-end investment companies, and other pooled investment vehicles, including any ETFs, involve substantially the same risks as investing directly in the instruments held by these entities. However, the total return from such investments will be reduced by the operating expenses and fees of the investment company or ETF. An investment company or ETF may not achieve its investment objective or execute its investment strategy effectively, which may adversely affect a Client account’s performance. The shares of certain ETFs may trade at a premium or discount to their intrinsic value (i.e., the market value may differ from the net asset value of an ETF’s shares). For example, supply and demand for shares of an ETF or market disruptions may cause the market price of the ETF to deviate from the value of the ETF’s investments, which may be emphasized in less liquid markets.
Issuer Risk: The value of a security may decline for a number of reasons which directly relate to the issuer, such as management performance, financial leverage and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services, as well as the historical and prospective earnings of the issuer and the value of its assets.
Investment Company and Exchange Traded Fund Risk: The risk that an investment company, including any ETF, in which a Client invests will not achieve its investment objective or execute its investment strategies effectively or that large purchase or redemption activity by shareholders of such an investment company might negatively affect the value of the investment company’s shares. A Client will pay its pro rata portion of the fees and expenses of any investment company in which the Client invests
Junk Bond Risk: High-yield or “junk” bonds may have a higher degree of default risk and may be less liquid and subject to greater price volatility than investment grade bonds.
Legal and Regulatory Risk: Legal, tax and regulatory changes could occur and may adversely affect an account and its ability to pursue its investment strategies and/or increase the costs of implementing such strategies. New (or revised) laws or regulations may be imposed by the CFTC, the SEC, the U.S. Federal Reserve or other banking regulators, other governmental regulatory authorities or self-regulatory organizations that supervise the financial markets that could adversely affect an account. In particular, these agencies are empowered to promulgate a variety of new rules pursuant to financial reform legislation in the United States. An account also may be adversely affected by changes in the enforcement or interpretation of existing statutes and rules by these governmental regulatory authorities or self-regulatory organizations.
Leveraging Risk: Certain investments involving leverage may have the effect of increasing the volatility of an account and the risk of loss in excess of invested capital. Leverage risk generally exists within the private investment vehicles and mutual funds managed by DoubleLine, although DoubleLine also offers separate accounts that involve leverage.
Liquidity Risk: There may be no willing buyer of an account’s securities and the account may have to sell those securities at a lower price or may not be able to sell the securities at all, each of which would have a negative effect on account value and performance.
Loan Risk: Includes the risk that (i) if a Client holds a loan through another financial institution, or relies on a financial institution to administer the loan, its receipt of principal and interest on the loan may be subject to the credit risk of that financial institution; (ii) it is possible that any collateral securing a loan may be insufficient or unavailable to the Client, because, for example, the value of the collateral securing a loan can decline, be insufficient to meet the obligations of the borrower, or be difficult to liquidate, and that the Client’s rights to collateral may be limited by bankruptcy or insolvency laws; (iii) investments in highly leveraged loans or loans of stressed, distressed, or defaulted issuers may be subject to significant credit and liquidity risk; (iv) a bankruptcy or other court proceeding could delay or limit the ability of the Client to collect the principal and interest payments on that borrower’s loans or adversely affect the Client’s rights in collateral relating to a loan; (v) there may be limited public information available regarding the loan; (vi) the use of a particular interest rate benchmark, such as LIBOR, may limit the Client’s ability to achieve a net return to shareholders that consistently approximates the average published Prime Rate of U.S. banks; (vii) the prices of certain floating rate loans that include a feature that prevents their interest rates from adjusting below a specified minimum level may be more sensitive to changes in interest rates should short-term interest rates rise but remain below the applicable minimum level; (viii) if a borrower fails to comply with various restrictive covenants that are typically in loan agreements, the borrower may default in payment of the loan (ix) the Client’s investments in Senior Loans may be subject to increased liquidity and valuation risks, risks associated with collateral impairment or access, and risks associated with investing in unsecured loans; (x) opportunities to invest in loans or certain types of loans, such as Senior Loans, may be limited, (xi) transactions in loans may settle on a delayed basis, and the Client may not receive the proceeds from the sale of a loan for a substantial period of time after the sale; and (xii) loans may be difficult to value and may be illiquid, which may adversely affect an investment in the Client. In addition, equity securities, including those acquired by the Client in connection with a loan (e.g., as part of an instrument combining a loan and equity securities), are subject to market risks and the risks of changes to the financial condition of the issuer, and fluctuations in value.
Management Risk: Each actively managed account is subject to management risk. DoubleLine’s portfolio managers will apply investment techniques and risk analyses in making investment decisions for actively managed accounts, but there can be no guarantee that these decisions will produce the desired results.
Market Capitalization Risk: Investing substantially in issuers in a single market capitalization category (i.e., large, medium or small) may adversely affect an account because of unfavorable market conditions that affect that category of issuers. For example, larger, more established companies being may be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges or attain the high growth rates of successful smaller companies. Conversely, securities of smaller companies may be more volatile than those of larger companies due to, among other things, narrower product lines, more limited financial resources, fewer experienced managers and there typically being less publicly available information about small capitalization companies.
Market Disruption and Geopolitical Risk: The wars with Iraq and Afghanistan and similar conflicts and geopolitical developments (such as the conflict involving the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant), their aftermath and continued military presence in Iraq and Afghanistan are likely to have a substantial effect on the U.S. and world economies and securities markets. The nature, scope and duration of the wars and the potential costs of rebuilding infrastructure cannot be predicted with any certainty. Terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001 closed some of the U.S. securities markets for a four-day period and similar future events cannot be ruled out. The war and occupation, terrorism and related geopolitical risks have led, and may in the future lead, to increased short-term market volatility and may have adverse long-term effects on U.S. and world economies and markets generally. Likewise, natural and environmental disasters, such as the earthquake and tsunami in Japan in early 2011, and systemic market dislocations of the kind surrounding the insolvency of Lehman Brothers in 2008, if repeated, could be highly disruptive to economies and markets. Those events, as well as other changes in foreign and domestic economic and political conditions, also could have an acute effect on individual issuers or related groups of issuers. These risks also could adversely affect individual issuers and securities markets, interest rates, secondary trading, ratings, credit risk, inflation, deflation and other factors relating to a Client’s investments
Market Risk: The risk that the overall market will perform poorly or that the returns from the securities in which a Client invests will underperform returns from the general securities markets or other types of investments.
Mortgage-Backed Securities Risk:
Credit and market risks of mortgage-backed securities: mortgage loans or the guarantees underlying the mortgage-backed securities may default or otherwise fail, leading to non-payment of interest and principal.
Pre-payment risk of mortgage-backed securities: in times of declining interest rates, higher-yielding securities may be prepaid and an account will have to replace them with securities having a lower yield.
Extension risk of mortgage-backed securities: in times of rising interest rates, mortgage pre-payments may slow causing securities considered short- or intermediate-term to be long-term securities that fluctuate more widely in response to changes in interest rates than shorter-term securities.
Inverse floater, interest- and principal-only securities risk: these securities are extremely sensitive to changes in interest rates and pre-payment rates.
Capital structure risk: conflicts potentially limiting a Client’s investment opportunities may arise when a Client and other Clients invest in different parts of an issuer’s capital structure, such as when a Client owns senior debt obligations of an issuer and other Clients own junior tranches of the same issuer. In such circumstances, decisions over whether to trigger an event of default, over the terms of any workout, or how to exit an investment may result in conflicts of interest. In order to minimize such conflicts, an account manager may avoid certain investment opportunities that would potentially give rise to conflicts with other Clients or DoubleLine may enact internal procedures designed to minimize such conflicts, may could have the effect of limiting a Client’s investment opportunities.
Federal Agencies’ Risks: The U. S. Government conservatorship of Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) and the Federal National Mortgage Corporation (“Fannie Mae”) in September 2008 and its ultimate resolution may adversely affect the real estate market, the value of real estate-related assets generally and markets generally. In addition, there may be proposals from the U.S. Congress or other branches of the U.S. Government regarding the conservatorship, including regarding reforming Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac or winding down their operations, which may or may not come to fruition. There can be no assurance that such proposals, even those that are not adopted, will not adversely affect the values of Clients’ assets. The Federal Housing Finance Agent (“FHFA”), as conservator or receiver of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, has the power to repudiate any contract entered into by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac prior to its appointment if it determines that performance of the contract is burdensome and repudiation of the contract promotes the orderly administration of Fannie Mae’s or Freddie Mac’s affairs. In the event the guaranty obligations of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac are repudiated, the payments of interest to holders of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities would be reduced if payments on the mortgage loans represented in the mortgage loan groups related to such mortgage-backed securities are not made by the borrowers or advanced by the servicer. Any actual direct compensatory damages for repudiating these guaranty obligations may not be sufficient to offset any shortfalls experienced by such mortgage-backed security holders. Further, in its capacity as conservator or receiver, FHFA has the right to transfer or sell any asset or liability of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac without any approval, assignment or consent. If FHFA were to transfer any such guaranty obligation to another party, holders of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities would have to rely on that party for satisfaction of the guaranty obligation and would be exposed to the credit risk of that party.
Municipal Bond Risk: Investing in the municipal bond market involves the risks of investing in debt securities generally and certain other risks. The amount of public information available about the municipal bonds in an account’s portfolio is generally less than that for corporate equities or bonds, and the investment performance of an account’s investment in municipal bonds may be more dependent on the analytical abilities of DoubleLine than its investments in taxable bonds. The secondary market for municipal bonds also tends to be less well developed or liquid than many other securities markets, which may adversely affect an account’s ability to sell municipal bonds at attractive prices.
The ability of municipal issuers to make timely payments of interest and principal may be diminished during general economic downturns, by litigation, legislation or political events, or by the bankruptcy of the issuer. Laws, referenda, ordinances or regulations enacted in the future by Congress or state legislatures or the applicable governmental entity could extend the time for payment of principal and/or interest, or impose other constraints on enforcement of such obligations, or on the ability of municipal issuers to levy taxes. Issuers of municipal securities also might seek protection under the bankruptcy laws. In the event of bankruptcy of such an issuer, an account could experience delays in collecting principal and interest and the account may not, in all circumstances, be able to collect all principal and interest to which it is entitled. Accounts may invest in revenue bonds, which are typically issued to fund a wide variety of capital projects including: electric, gas, water and sewer systems; highways, bridges and tunnels; port and airport facilities; colleges and universities; and hospitals. Because the principal security for a revenue bond is generally the net revenues derived from a particular facility or group of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise or other specific revenue source, there is no guarantee that the particular project will generate enough revenue to pay its obligations, in which case the account’s performance may be adversely affected.
Non-Diversification Risk: In certain strategies, the account may be non-diversified and may invest its assets in a smaller number of issuers or commodities than may a diversified strategy. The account may be more susceptible to any single economic, political, or regulatory occurrence than a diversified account that invests in a broader range of issuers or commodities. A decline in the market value of one of the account’s investments may affect the account’s value more than if the account were a diversified account.
Portfolio Management Risk: The risk that an investment strategy may fail to produce the intended results or that the securities held by a Client will underperform other comparable Client accounts because of the portfolio managers’ choice of investments.
Portfolio Turnover Risk: The length of time an account has held a particular security generally is not a consideration in investment decisions. A change in the securities held by an account is known as portfolio turnover. Portfolio turnover generally involves a number of direct and indirect costs and expenses to an account, including, for example, brokerage commissions, dealer mark-ups and bid/asked spreads, and transaction costs on the sale of securities and reinvestment in other securities, and may result in the realization of taxable capital gains.
Preferred Securities Risk: The risk that: (i) certain preferred stocks contain provisions that allow an issuer under certain circumstances to skip or defer distributions; (ii) preferred stocks may be subject to redemption, including at the issuer’s call, and, in the event of redemption, the account may not be able to reinvest the proceeds at comparable rates of return; (iii) preferred stocks are generally subordinate to bonds and other debt securities in an issuer’s capital structure in terms of priority for corporate income and liquidation payments; and (iv) preferred stocks may trade less frequently and in a more limited volume and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movement than many other securities.
Prepayment Risk: The risk that the issuer of a debt security, including floating rate loans and mortgage-related securities, repays all or a portion of the principal prior to the security’s maturity. In times of declining interest rates, this may result in a portion of a Client’s higher yielding securities being pre-paid and a Client being unable to re-invest the proceeds in an investment with as great a yield. Prepayments can therefore result in lower yields to a Client. Interest-only and principal-only securities are especially sensitive to interest rate changes, which can affect not only their prices but can also change the income flows and repayment assumptions about those investments.
Price Volatility Risk: The risk that the value of a Client’s investment portfolio will change, potentially frequently and in large amounts, as the prices of its investments go up or down.
Private Placement Risk: Investments in private placements carry a high degree of risk for various reasons. A private placement involves the sale of securities that have not been registered under the Securities Act of 1933, or relevant provisions of applicable non-U.S. law, to certain institutional and qualified individual purchasers. In addition to the general risks to which all securities are subject, securities received in a private placement generally are subject to strict restrictions on resale, and there may be no liquid secondary market or ready purchaser for such securities. Securities sold through private placements are not publicly traded and, therefore, are less liquid. Companies seeking private placement investments tend to be in earlier stages of development and have not yet been fully tested in the public marketplace.
Real Estate Risk: Real estate-related investments may decline in value as a result of factors affecting the real estate industry, such as the supply of real property in certain markets, changes in zoning laws, delays in completion of construction, changes in real estate values, changes in property taxes, levels of occupancy, and local and regional market conditions.
Redenomination Risk: Any partial or complete dissolution of the European Monetary Union (“EMU”) could have significant adverse effects on currency and financial markets, and on the values of a Client’s investments. If one or more EMU countries were to stop using the euro as its primary currency, a Client’s investments in such countries may be redenominated into a different or newly adopted currency. As a result, the values of those investments could decline significantly and unpredictably. In addition, securities or other investments that are redenominated may be subject to foreign currency risk, liquidity risk and valuation risk to a greater extent than similar investments currently denominated in Euros.
Reliance on DoubleLine: Each account’s ability to achieve its investment objective is dependent upon DoubleLine’s ability to identify profitable investment opportunities for that account. Although DoubleLine’s portfolio managers may have considerable experience in managing other portfolios with investment objectives, policies and strategies that are similar, the past experience of the portfolio managers, including with other strategies and accounts, does not guarantee future results for any particular account.
REIT Risk: An investment in a REIT may be subject to risks similar to those associated with direct ownership of real estate, including losses from casualty or condemnation and environmental liabilities, and changes in local and general economic conditions, market value, supply and demand, interest rates, zoning laws, regulatory limitations on rents, property taxes and operating expenses.
In addition, an investment in a REIT is subject to additional risks, such as poor performance by the manager of the REIT, adverse changes to the tax laws, changes in the cost or availability of credit, or the failure by the REIT to qualify for tax-free pass-through of income under the Code, and to the risk of general declines in stock prices. In addition, some REITs have limited diversification because they invest in a limited number of properties, a narrow geographic area, or a single type of property. Also, the organizational documents of a REIT may contain provisions that make changes in control of the REIT difficult and time-consuming. As a shareholder in a REIT, a Client’s account would bear its ratable share of the REIT’s expenses and would at the same time continue to pay its own fees and expenses.
Reinvestment Risk: Income from an account’s portfolio will decline if and when the account invests the proceeds from matured, traded or called debt obligations at market interest rates that are below the portfolio’s current earnings rate. For instance, during periods of declining interest rates, an issuer of debt obligations may exercise an option to redeem securities prior to maturity, forcing the account to reinvest the proceeds in lower-yielding securities. A decline in income received by the account from its investments is likely to have a negative effect on the market price, net asset value and/or overall return of the Common Shares.
Restricted Securities Risk: A Client account may invest in securities which are subject to restrictions on resale because they have not been registered under the Securities Act or which are otherwise not readily marketable. These securities are generally referred to as private placements or restricted securities. Irrespective of DoubleLine’s initial or ongoing determinations of the liquidity of any given security, market conditions could cause these securities to become less liquid and possibly extremely difficult to sell.
Securities or Sector Selection Risk: Securities held by an account may underperform other accounts investing in the same asset class or benchmarks that are representative of the asset class because of DoubleLine’s choice of securities or sectors for investment.
Service Provider Risk: In the event of the insolvency or bankruptcy of any service provider retained by DoubleLine to assist it with various operational services, there likely will be operational and other delays and additional costs and expenses associated with changes in service provider arrangements that could adversely affect Client accounts. A Client’s account also could be adversely affected by the misfeasance of such other service providers.
Short Position Risk: In certain strategies, the account may borrow an instrument from a broker or other institution and sell it to establish a short position in the instrument. The account may also enter into a derivative transaction in order to establish a short position with respect to a reference asset. The account may make a profit or incur a loss depending upon whether the market price of the instrument or the value of the position decreases or increases between the date the account established the short position and the date on which the account must replace the borrowed instrument or otherwise close out the transaction. An increase in the value of an instrument with respect to which the account has established a short position will result in a loss to the account, and there can be no assurance that the account will be able to close out the position at any particular time or at an acceptable price. The loss to an account from a short position is potentially unlimited.
Short Sales Risk: To the extent an account makes use of short sales for investment and/or risk management purposes, an account may be subject to certain risks associated with selling short. Short sales are transactions in which the account sells securities or other instruments that an account does not own. Short sales expose an account to the risk that it will be required to cover its short position at a time when the securities have appreciated in value, thus resulting in a loss to an account. An account may engage in short sales when it does not own or have the right to acquire the security sold short at no additional cost. An account’s loss on a short sale theoretically could be unlimited in a case in which an account is unable, for whatever reason, to close out its short position. In addition, an account’s short selling strategies may limit its ability to benefit from increases in the markets. Also, there is the risk that the counterparty to a short sale may fail to honor its contractual terms, causing a loss to an account.
Smaller Company Risk: The general risks associated with debt instruments or equity securities are particularly pronounced for securities issued by companies with small market capitalizations. Small capitalization companies involve certain special risks. They are more likely than larger companies to have limited product lines, markets or financial resources, or to depend on a small, inexperienced management group. Securities of smaller companies may trade less frequently and in lesser volume than more widely held securities and their values may fluctuate more sharply than other securities. They also may have limited liquidity. These securities may therefore be more vulnerable to adverse developments than securities of larger companies, and a Client’s account may have difficulty purchasing or selling securities positions in smaller companies at prevailing market prices. Also, there may be less publicly available information about smaller companies or less market interest in their securities as compared to larger companies. Companies with medium-sized market capitalizations may have risks similar to those of smaller companies.
Sovereign Debt Obligations Risk: Investments in countries’ government debt obligations involve special risks. Certain countries have historically experienced, and may continue to experience, high rates of inflation, high interest rates, exchange rate fluctuations, large amounts of external debt, balance of payments and trade difficulties and extreme poverty and unemployment. The issuer or governmental authority that controls the repayment of a country’s debt may not be able or willing to repay the principal and/or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt. A debtor’s willingness or ability to repay principal and interest due in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation and, in the case of a government debtor, the extent of its foreign reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the government debtor’s policy towards the International Monetary Fund and the political constraints to which a government debtor may be subject. Government debtors may default on their debt and also may be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and others abroad to reduce principal and interest arrearages on their debt. The commitment on the part of these governments, agencies and others to make such disbursements may be conditioned on a debtor’s implementation of economic reforms and/or economic performance and the timely service of such debtor’s obligations.
Structured Products and Structured Notes Risk: Generally, structured investments are interests in entities organized and operated for the purpose of restructuring the investment characteristics of underlying investment interests or securities. These investment entities may be structured as trusts or other types of pooled investment vehicles. This type of restructuring generally involves the deposit with or purchase by an entity of the underlying investments and the issuance by that entity of one or more classes of securities backed by, or representing interests in, the underlying investments or referencing an indicator related to such investments. The cash flow or rate of return on the underlying investments may be apportioned among the newly issued securities to create different investment characteristics, such as varying maturities, credit quality, payment priorities and interest rate provisions. The cash flow or rate of return on a structured investment may be determined by applying a multiplier to the rate of total return on the underlying investments or referenced indicator. Application of a multiplier is comparable to the use of financial leverage, a speculative technique. Leverage magnifies the potential for gain and the risk of loss. As a result, a relatively small decline in the value of the underlying investments or referenced indicator could result in a relatively large loss in the value of a structured product. Holders of structured products indirectly bear risks associated with the underlying investments, index or reference obligation, and are subject to counterparty risk. A Client’s account invested in a structured product generally has the right to receive payments to which it is entitled only from the structured product, and generally does not have direct rights against the issuer. While certain structured investment vehicles enable the investor to acquire interests in a pool of securities without the brokerage and other expenses associated with directly holding the same securities, investors in structured vehicles generally pay their share of the investment vehicle’s administrative and other expenses.
Structured notes are derivative securities for which the amount of principal repayment and/or interest payments is based on the movement of one or more “factors.” These factors may include, but are not limited to, currency exchange rates, interest rates (such as the prime lending rate or LIBOR), referenced bonds and stock indices. Some of these factors may or may not correlate to the total rate of return on one or more underlying instruments referenced in such notes. In some cases, the impact of the movements of these factors may increase or decrease through the use of multipliers or deflators. Investments in structured notes involve risks including interest rate risk, credit risk and market risk. Where a Client’s account’s investments in structured notes are based upon the movement of one or more factors, depending on the factor used and the use of multipliers or deflators, changes in interest rates and movement of the factor may cause significant price fluctuations. Additionally, changes in the reference instrument or security may cause the interest rate on the structured note to be reduced to zero and any further changes in the reference instrument may then reduce the principal amount payable on maturity.
Tax Risk: Tax laws and regulations applicable to an account are subject to change, and unanticipated tax liabilities could be incurred by investors as a result of such changes. Investors should consult their own tax advisors to determine the potential tax-related consequences of investing in an account with DoubleLine or in a DoubleLine Private Fund or Registered Fund.
U.S. Government Securities Risk: Debt securities issued or guaranteed by certain U.S. Government agencies, instrumentalities, and sponsored enterprises are not supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, and so involve credit risk greater than investments in other types of U.S. Government securities. Although legislation has been enacted to support certain U.S. Government-sponsored enterprises (“GSEs”), there is no assurance that GSE obligations will be satisfied in full, or that such obligations will not decrease in value or default. It is difficult, if not impossible, to predict the future political, regulatory or economic changes that could impact the GSEs and the values of their related securities or obligations. The events surrounding the U.S. federal government debt ceiling could adversely affect a Client’s ability to achieve its account’s investment objectives. On August 5, 2011, S&P lowered its long-term sovereign credit rating on the United States to “AA+” from “AAA”. The downgrade by S&P and other future downgrades could increase volatility in both stock and bond markets, result in higher interest rates and lower Treasury prices and increase the costs of all kinds of debt.
Zero-Coupon Bond and Payment-In-Kind Securities Risk: Investments in zero-coupon and payment-in-kind securities are subject to certain risks, including that market prices of zero-coupon and payment-in-kind securities generally are more volatile than the prices of securities that pay interest periodically and in cash, and are likely to respond to changes in interest rates to a greater degree than other types of debt securities with similar maturities and credit quality. Because zero-coupon securities bear no interest, their prices are especially volatile. And because zero-coupon bondholders do not receive interest payments, the prices of zero-coupon securities generally fall more dramatically than those of bonds that pay interest on a current basis when interest rates rise. However, when interest rates fall, the prices of zero-coupon securities generally rise more rapidly in value than those of similar interest paying bonds. Under many market and other conditions, the market for the zero-coupon and payment-in-kind securities may suffer decreased liquidity making it difficult for a Client account to dispose of them or to determine their current value. In addition, as these securities may not pay cash interest, a Client account’s investment exposure to these securities and their risks, including credit risk, will increase during the time these securities are held in a Client account’s portfolio.
Although DoubleLine attempts to manage these risks through careful research, ongoing monitoring of investments, and appropriate hedging techniques, there can be no assurance that the securities and other instruments purchased which are the focus of our strategies will increase in value or that accounts under our management will not incur significant losses.